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A B C D E F
Pronunciation is based on the many variations of sound found in regional dialects both within a country and internationally. Pronunciation of the same Latin word by Americans, British, Italians, Spaniards, Japanese, etc. can sometimes be difficult to interpret. Below are vowels listed first, followed by a few consonants. With this guide, you should have little difficulty in sounding out the syllables as shown in the pronunciation guide.
Most terminology in this glossary, with the exception a few common English words, have a pronunciation guide in parentheses immediately following the word. In some cases alternate pronunciation is also shown. Each syllable is separated by a hyphen. Syllables printed in CAPITALS are stressed, that is, the accent falls on these, while lower case syllables are not stressed.
|a = a as in about
ab = ab as in absent
ad = ad as in advertise
af = af as in after
ag = ag as in aggravate
ah = a as in star
ak = ac as in active
al = al as in altitude
all = all as in fall
am = am as in amber
an = an as in ant
aw = aw as in saw
ay = ay as in say
i = i as in it
e = e as in often
ee = ee as in see
eh = e as in pet
eye = i as in pie
|ew = ew as in few
o = o as in offer
oh = o as in bone
oo = oo as in soon
ow = ow as in how
oy = oy as in boy
u = u as in butter
uh - u as in medium
ff = ff as in stuff
|g = g as in good
j = g as in ginger
k = k as in kite
s = s as in sing
ss = ss as in kiss
th = th as in thin
z = z as in zebra
A or a - prefix meaning without or absent.
ABAXIAL (ab-AK-si-al) or (ab-AXE-ee-al) - Remote or turned away from the axis. facing away from the axis of an organ or organism "the abaxial surface of a leaf is the underside or side facing away from the stem".
ABBREVIATUS, -a, -um (a-bree-vee-AY-tus) - Shortened; abbreviated.
ABERRANT (ab-ER-ant) - Unusual or exceptional; a plant or structure that varies from the normal or typical.
ABORTION - Premature bud or flower drop or poorly developed organ.
ABORTIVE (a-BOR-tiv) - Rudimentary or imperfectly formed; sterile.
ABORTIVUS, -a, -um (ab-or-TYE-vus) - Imperfectly formed or rudimentary; abortive.
ABRUPTUS, -a, -um (ab-RUP-tus) - Broken off, or ending suddenly; abrupt.
ABSCISSION (ab-SIZH-un) - Falling away or separation of an organ, frequently by rupturing of the thin walls of cells grouped in an absciss-layer when associated with a deficiency in auxin production.
ACAULESCENT (ak-au-LES-ent) or (a-kawl-ESS-ent) - Having no true stem or axis or only a very short one concealed in the ground.
ACAULIS, -e (a-KAW-lis) (ak-AU-lis) - Having no stem, or only a very short stem.
ACCESSORY BUDS - Buds in addition to those in axils.
ACCLIMATION (ak-li-MAY-shun) - Process by which, through crossbreeding and selection, a species attains tolerance to a changed environment.
ACCRESCENT (a-KRES-ent) or (a-KREE-shent)- Increasing with age-as fruit or flower parts increase in size after or during flowering period.
ACERIFORM (uh-SEER-uh-form) - Having leaves similar to those of maple trees.
ACEROSE (as-uh-rohs) - Shaped like a needle.
ACHLAMYDEOUS (ak-luh-MID-ee-uhs) - Having no corolla or calyx.
ACICULAR (a-SIK-yew-lar) - Pointed, needle-like.
ACICULARIS, -e (a-sik-yew-LAIR-is) - Pointed; needlelike.
ACINACIFORM (as-i-NAS-i-form) - Shaped like a scimitar.
ACINACIFORMIS, -e (a-sin-a-si-FORM-is) - Shaped like a curved sword or scimitar.
ACOTYLEDONOUS (A-kot-el-EED-un-us) - Having no cotyledons.
ACROPETAL (a-KROP-i-tal) - Ascending, as leaves and flowers developing succession on an axis so that the youngest is at the apex. Also, the normal development root hairs.
ACROTONIC (ah-KROW-tawn-ik) - Developing at the tip.
ACTINOMORPHIC (AK-tin-O-more-fik) - Said of a symmetrical flower capable of bisecting in two or more planes into like halves.
ACULEATUS, -a, -um (ak-yew-lee-AY-tus) - Prickly; sharp-pointed; aculeate.
ACUMINATE (a-KEW-mi-nit) - Gradually tapering to a point; ending in a sharp but tapering point.
ACUMINATUS, -a, -um (ak-yew-min-AY-tus) - Tapering into a long narrow point; acuminate.
ACUTE (a-KUTE) - Ending in a sharp point (not tapering), the converging edges separated by an angle less than 90°.
ACUTUS, -a, -um (ak-YEW-tus) - With a sharp but not tapering point; an angle of less than 90 degrees; acute.
ADAXIAL (ad-AX-e-al) - Toward the axis. Nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism; the upper side of a leaf is known as the adaxial surface.
ADHERENT (ad-HEER-ent) - Attached or joined, though normally separate. United to a dissimilar part which usually is separate.
ADNATE (AD-nate) - Congenitally grown together; having one organ attached wholly or in part to a dissimilar part. - said only of organic cohesion of unlike parts. Two dissimilar parts fused together are said to be adnate. Examples include petals fused to the column as in Gongora, or a lip fused to the column as in Epidendrum
ADNATUS, -a, -um (ad-NAY-tus) - Having one organ attached wholly or in part to a dissimilar organ; joined together; adnate.
ADUNCATE (a-DUN-kate) - Hooked.
ADUNCUS, -a, -um (a-DUN-kus) - Curved inward; hooked; aduncous.
ADVENTITIOUS (ad-ven-TISH-us) – (1) Occurring in unusual or abnormal places; as adventitious leaves. (2) Arising at various points along a stem, rather than at the base or apex, or another such specific zone. (3) Referring to roots not directly derived from the embryonic root or radicle. All orchid roots are adventitious.
ADVENTIVE (ad-VEN-tive) - Growing spontaneously, but not native; an imperfectly or partially naturalized exotic.
AEMULUS, -a, -um (EYE-mew-lus) - Rivaling; hence superior, very handsome.
AERIAL ROOTS (AIR-ee-al) - Roots produced above or out of the growing medium.
AESTIVAL (eh-STEE-vuhl) - Flowering or appearing in the summer.
AESTIVATION (also estivation) (es-ta-VAY-shun) or (es-ti-VAY-shun) - The arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
AFFINIS, -e (af-FYE-nis) - Related or similar to; often used in the sense of doubtful or ambiguous.
AFFINITY - A biological relationship among species or higher taxa dependent upon resemblance of general characters.
AFRICANUS, -a, -um (af-rik-KAY-nus) - Native of Africa; African.
AGAR (A-gar) or (AH-ger) - Refined seaweed used in making up nutrient medium in which orchid seeds may be sown. Agar-agar; a gelatinous substance derived from certain seaweeds and used as a solidifying agent in culture media; the culture medium made from agar and used for germinating orchid seed, meristem tissue and the like.
AGGLOMERATE (a-GLOM-er-ayt) - To gather together in a cluster or mass; collected into a mass but not coherent.
AGGLUTINATE (a-GLOO-tin-ayt) - To unite together with some sticky or viscous substance; united as with a glue.
AGGREGATED (AG-gre-gate-ted) - formed of separate units in a cluster. Raspberries are aggregate fruits.
AGGREGATUS, -a, -um (ag-greg-GAY-tus) - Clustered in a dense mass; aggregate.
ALA (pl. alae) - A wing (wings).
ALATE (AY-late) - Having wings or wing-like parts or structures. Many orchids have extensions of the sides of the column that appear to be wings..
ALATUS, -a, -um (al-AY-tus) - Winged; having wings or winglike parts; alate.
ALBA or ALBUM (AL-buh, AL-bum) - White; often used to describe a white or pale phase of a species or hybrid whose flowers normally are colored.
ALBESCENS (al-BESS-senz) - Whitish; becoming white.
ALBIDOFULVUS, -a, -um (al-bid-oh-FULL-vus) - Yellow and white.
ALBIDUS, -a, -um (AL-bid-us) - Whitish.
ALBINO - A plant with a marked deficiency in pigmentation.
ALBOSTRIATUS, -a, -um (al-bo-strye-AY-tus) - Striped with white.
ALBUS, -a, -um (AL-bus) - White.
ALIFOLIUS, -a, -um (al-lee-FOH-lee-us) - Winged-leaved.
ALKALINITY (al-ka-LIN-i-ty) - Degree to which a substance in solution dissociates hydroxide ions. Alkalinity is expressed by pH value which numerically increase as alkalinity increases, from 7.0 (neutral) to 14.
ALLELE (ah-LEE-leh) or (ah-LEEL) – (1) One of the alternate forms of a given gene, the alleles being dominant, recessive or incompletely dominant. (2) One of two dissimilar genes which occupy positions on homologous chromosomes and which carry factors acting as alternative conditions in inheritance. Multiple alleles are members of a series of more than two alleles possessed by a genotype.
ALLELOMORPH (See ALLELE)
ALLIACEOUS (al-ee-AY-shus) - Smelling or tasting like garlic.
ALLOPATRIC (al-O-PAT-rick) - Being present in different areas.
ALLOPOLYPLOID (AL-low-polly-ploid) - Polyploid derived from between widely different species.
ALOIFOLIUS, -a, -um (al-oh-i-FOH-lee-us) - With leaves like an aloe.
ALPESTRIS, -e (al-PEST-ris) - Of the lower mountains.
ALPINUS, -a, -um (al-PYE-nus) - From high mountains; alpine.
ALTERNATE (all-TURN-it) or (awl-ter-NATE) - (1) (of the arrangement of leaves) arising one from each node in a staggered formation. (2) Any arrangement of leaves or other parts not opposite or whorled; placed singly at different heights on the axis or stem.
ALTISSIMUS, -a, -um (al-TISS-eh-mus) or (al-TISS-I-mus) - Very tall, or tallest of its congeners.
ALTUS, -a, -um (AL-tus) - Tall.
ALVEOLATUS, -a, -um (al-vee-oh-LAY-tus) - Honeycombed, or pitted with angular separated depressions; alveolate.
AMABILIS, -e (ah-MAH-bill-iss) or (a-MAB-i-lis) - Lovely.
AMBIGUS, -a, -um (am-BIG-yew-us) - Doubtful, uncertain; ambiguous.
AMBOINENSIS, -e (am-boy-NEN-sis) - Native to the island of Amboina in the Malayan archipelago.
AMESIANUS, -a, -um (aims-ee-AY-nus) - Commemorating a member of the Ames family.
AMETHYSTINUS, -a, -um (am-eh-this-TYE-nus) - Pale violet in color.
AMETHYSTOGLOSSUS, -a, -um (am-e-this-toh-GLOSS-us) - Having an amethyst-colored lip.
AMOENUS, -a, -um (am-EEN-us) - Charming; delightful.
AMORPHOUS (a-MORE-fuss) - Formless; of no definite or constant form.
AMPHIDIPLOID (AM-fi-di-ploid) - Polyploid resulting from hybridization between two or more diploid species separated by barriers of hybrid sterility.
AMPHIGEAN (am-fi-JEE-an) - Found in both hemispheres; of both Old World and New World; said of the distribution of plants.
AMPHOTERIC (am-fo-TER-ik) - Having both acid and basic properties.
AMPLECTANT (am-PLEK-tant) - Clasping or embracing a support;
AMPLEXICAUL (am-PLEK-si-kol) - Clasping or embracing a stem, as the base of some leaves.
AMPLEXICAULIS, -e (am-plex-i-KAW-lis) - With leaves or bracts clasping the stem.
AMPLIATUS, -a, -um (am-plee-AY-tus) - Enlarged.
AMPLUS, -a, -um (AM-plus) – Large, fine, noble.
AMPULLACEUS, -a, -um (am-pew-LAY-see-us) or (am-pu-LAY-shus) - Flask or bottle-shaped.
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION (an-air-O-bic) - Break-down of sugars and other organic materials for the release of energy, in the absence of oxygen. Usually identified with fermentation.
ANALOGOUS (an-AL-o-gus) - Related in function or use but not in origin.
ANASTOMOSING (a-NASS-toh-moh-zing) - Netted; interveined; said of leaves marked by a network of veins.
ANCEPS (AN-seps) - Two-edged , such as in a flattened stem.
ANCIPITAL (an-SIP-i-tahl) - Having two edges.
ANCIPITOUS (an-SIP-i-tus) - Compressed or flattened, two-edged.
ANDROECIUM (an-DREE-shi-um) or (an-DREE-see-um) - Collective name for the stamens of a flower.
ANDROGYNOUS (an-DROJ-in-us) - Having both male and female flowers on the same inflorescence; being both male and female; hermaphroditic.
ANEUPLOID (an-EWE-ployd) - A genetic aberration having a chromosome number that is not a multiple of the base number.
ANGIOSPERM (AN-jee-oh-spurm) - Any plant of a class (Angiosperma) - having the seeds in a closed ovary; a flowering plant.
ANGRAECOID (an-GREE-koyd or an-GRYE-koyd) - African orchids resembling Angraecum in habit.
ANGUSTIFOLIUS, -a, -um (an-gus-ti-FOH-lee-us) - Having narrow leaves.
ANNUAL (an-yew-ul) - A plant that completes its life cycle from seed to death in one year.
ANNULARIS, -e (an-yew-LAIR-is) - Ring-shaped.
ANNULATUS, -a, -um (an-yew-LAY-tus) - Furnished with rings.
ANOMALUS, -a, -um (an-OM-al-us) - Deviating from the normal or type; abnormal; anomalous.
ANOSMUS, -a, -um (an-OZ-mus) - Having no scent.
ANTENNIFERUS, -a, -um (an-ten-IF-fer-us) - Bearing antennae.
ANTENNIFORM (an-TEN-ni-form) - Shaped like an antennae.
ANTERIOR - On the front or forward end or side of an organ or flower.
ANTHELATE- Having long branches bearing flowers.
ANTHER (AN-ther) - The part of a stamen containing the pollen; in orchids the top part of the column.
ANTHER CAP (AN-ther kap) - The covering of the pollen-masses on the flower's column; the operculum.
ANTHESIS (an-THEE-sis) - The period or state of expansion in a flower.
ANTHO (AN-tho) - Prefix, flower, as in anthophilous-living on flowers, or anthophobia-fear of flowers.
ANTHOCYANIN (AN-th-SI-a-nin) or (an-THO-sigh-a-nin) - A type of naturally occurring flavonoid pigment that is especially common within flowers and is responsible for red through blue colors; these pigments vary in color according to the pH of the cell sap, presence of metal ions and the concentration of co-pigments.
ANTIPODAL (an-TIP-oh-dal) - On the opposite sides of the globe; diametrically opposite.
ANTRORSE (an-TRORSS) - Directed forward or upward (opposite of retrorse).
APERTUS, -a, -um (ap-ERT-us) - Exposed; bare; open.
APETALOUS (a-PET-a-lus) - Having no petals.
APEX (AY-pex) - The tip; point; the highest point.
APHID (AY-fid) - A plant-sucking insect that attacks soft tissue; a plant louse..
APHYLLOUS (a-FILL-us) - Without leaves.
APHYLLUS, -a, -um (a-FILL-us) - Without leaves, or nearly so; aphyllous.
APIATUS, -a, -um (a-pee-AY-tus) - Beelike.
APICAL (AP-i-kil) or (AY-pik-al) - At or pertaining to the tip of any structure.
APICULATE (a-PIK-you-lit) - Ending in a short pointed tip; leaf terminated abruptly by a small point.
APICULATUS, -a, -um (a-pik-yew-LAY-tus) - Ending abruptly in a short sharp point; apiculate.
APICULE (A-pik-ule) or (AY-pik-yewl) - A short-pointed tip at the apex of a leaf or floral segment.
APIFERUS, -a, -um (a-PIFF-er-us) - From apis, a bee, and fero, to bear; literally, bearing bees, alluding to the beelike shape of the flowers.
APOCARPOUS (ap-uh-KAR-puhs) - Having separate carpels.
APOGAMETY (a-POG-a-me-ti) - Development of an embryo from a diploid gametophyte by the division of a cell other than an egg cell, with or without pollination and (partial) fertilization, the zygote so formed being maternal in genetic constitution.
APOGAMOUS (ap-oh-GAM-us) - Said of pods developing without fertilization.
APOGAMY (a-POG-a-mi) - The development of buds in place of ovules; growth of the normal product of fertilization directly from the female sexual organ.
APOMIXIS (ap-oh-MIX-us) - The production of seeds through asexual methods instead of the normal sexual means.
APOMORPHY (AP-oh-morf-ee) - A cladistic term defining a derived character state.
APPENDAGE (uh-PEN-didge) - An attached subsidiary or secondary part.
APPENDICULATUS, -a, -um (a-pen-dik-yew-LAY-tus) - Having appendages, such as a crest, hairs, etc.
APRESSED (ap-PREST) - Pressed close to or lying against something for its full length.
APPRESSUS, -a, -um (ap-PRESS-us) - Pressed close to, or lying flat against another organ.
APPROXIMATE - Situated near or close together.
APRESSED (ap-PREST) - Pressed close to or lying against something for its full length.
APTEROUS (AP-t'r-us) - Wingless; destitute of wing-like membranous expansions, as a stem or petiole.
APTERUS, -a, -um (ap-TER-us) - Wingless.
AQUATIC - Growing or living in water.
ARACHNOID (a-RACK-noyd) - Cobwebby, by way of soft and slender entangled hairs; also spider-like; similar to Arachnis.
ARBOREOUS (ahr-BORE-ee-us) - Pertaining to trees.
ARCUATE (ARC-kew-ate) or (AR-kyew-ayt) - Arched or curved like a bow.
AREMIACUS (air-me-AY-kus) - Being fragrant.
AREOLE (AIR-ee-ole) - A small area on a surface; an interstice, such as between veins of a leaf.
ARGENTEUS, -a, -um (ar-JEN-tee-us) - Silvery.
ARGENTINE (ARGENTUS) (AR-jen-teen) - Silvery.
ARGUS (AR-gus) - A specific name in reference to Argus, the hundred-eyed monster of Greek mythology sent to watch Io.
ARIETINOUS (AR-i-ET-i-nus) - Shaped like a ram’s head.
ARIETINUS, -a, -um (a-ri-eh-TYE-nus) - Shaped like a ram's head.
ARISTATE (a-RIS-tate) - Having a pointed or beard-like appendage.
ARISTATUS, -a, -um (a-ris-TAY-tus) - Bearded; furnished with a bristle-like appendage; aristate.
ARMED - Provided with any kind of strong and sharp defense, such as thorns, spines, prickles, barbs, etc.
ARMENIACUS, -a, -um (ar-men-i-AY-kus) - Apricot-colored.
AROMATICUS, -a, -um (air-oh-MAT-ik-us) - Fragrant; aromatic.
ARTICULATE (ar-TIK-yew-late) - Jointed; having joints where separation may occur naturally; of a stem, having nodes.
ARTICULATUS, -a, -um (ar-tik-yew-LAY-tus) - Jointed; articulate.
ARTIFICIAL HYBRID - The offspring of an artificial cross between two dissimilar parents, that is, parents not of the same species of hybrid grex; any plant progeny produced with man as the pollinating agent.
ASCENDENS (a-SEN-denz) - Rising somewhat obliquely or curving upward; ascending.
ASCENDING (ah-SEND-ing) - arising at a steep angle, but not vertical.
ASEPALOUS (ay-SEP-a-lus) - Having no sepals.
ASEXUAL (a-SEX-shu-al) - Sexless; without involving sex, such as a vegetative propagation.
ASEXUAL PROPAGATION - Any process of reproduction which does not involve or directly follow union of germ cells of two different sexes.
ASPER, -a, -um (AS-per) - Rough.
ASPERATUS, -a, -um (as-per-AY-tus) - Roughened; asperate.
ASSURGENT (ass-UR-gent) - Ascending.
ASYMBIOTIC (AS-im-bi-otik) or (ay-sim-bi-AH-tik) - Without symbiosis; referring to a method of germinating orchid seed without the presence of fungi.
ASYMMETRICAL (ay-sim-MET-ri-kal) - Not symmetrical; having no regular shape.
ATRATUS, -a, -um (a-TRAY-tus) - Blackish; dark.
ATROPURPUREUS, -a, -um (a-troh-pur-PUR-ee-us) - Dark purple.
ATRORUBENS (at-roh-REW-benz) - Deep reddish.
ATTENUATE (at-TEN-yew-ate) - Slender, tapering; becoming narrow; tapering gradually.
ATTENUATUS, -a, -um (at-ten-yew-AY-tus) - Narrowing to a point; attenuated.
AUGUSTIFOLIUS, -a, -um (aw-gus-ti-FO-lee-us) - Having broad leaves.
AUGUSTUS, -a, -um (aw-GUS-tus) - Majestic; noble; august.
AURANTIACUS, -a, -um (aw-ran-tee-AY-kus) - Orange-colored.
AUREOFLAVUS, -a, -um (aw-ree-o-FLAY-vus) - Golden yellow.
AUREUS, -a, -um (AW-ree-us) - Gold-colored; golden.
AURICLE (AW-ri-kl) or (AW-rik-ul) - A small ear-like appendage.
AURICULATE (aw-RI-kew-late) - Furnish with auricles.
AURICULATUS, -a, -um (aw-rik-yew-LAY-tus) - Furnished with earlike appendages; auriculate.
AUSTRALASIA (aw-struh-LAY-shuh) - A variably defined biogeographic area that includes Australia, New Guinea and associated biogeographic area, frequently identical to the area east of Wallace's line.
AUSTRALIS, -e (aw-STRAY-lis) - Southern.
AUTHOR - One who first describes the species.
AUTOPHYTE (AW-toh-fite) - A green plant capable of manufacturing its own food, neither saprophytic nor parasitic.
AUTOPLOID (AW-toh-ployd) - Individuals with chromosome sets characteristic of the species in question; the chromosome sets are homologous to each other. Each set being present either once (diploid) - or in greater numbers (autopolyploid) -
AUTOPOLYPLOID (AW-to-POL-i-ploid) - Polyploid derived from a single ancestral species, usually by intraspecific hybridization.
AUTOTROPHIC (aw-TROW-fick) - Having the ability to produce its own food.
AUTOXIDATION (o-TOK-si-DAY-shun) - Poisoning by toxic substances produced within the organism’s own body.
AUTUMNAL (aw-TUM-nal) - Pertaining to autumn.
AUTUMNALIS, -e (AW-tum-na-lis) or (aw-tum-NAY-lis) - Autumn flowering; autumnal.
AUXIN (AWK-zin) - A class of plant hormones responsible for regulating certain types of growth, e.g., apical dominance.
AUXINS (OKS-ins) - Chemicals - natural and commercial, that induce flowering or growth. (Indole acetic acid, for example)
AUXOTROPH (AWKS-oh-trohf) - An organism that has nutritional requirements for specific substances, e.g. enzymes, proteins, carbohydrates.
AWL-SHAPED (ahl-shaped) - Narrow and sharp-pointed; gradually tapering from base to a slender or stiff point; subulate.
AWN (awn) - A bristlelike part or appendage; any small, pointed process. The bristly fibers or beard that terminate the anther.
AXIL (AK-sil) - The upper angle between a leaf, twig, etc. and the stem from which it grows.
AXILLARIS, -e (ax-ill-AIR-is) - Borne in the axil; axillary.
AXILLARY (AK-sil-lar-i) - Situated in or arising from an axil; of or pertaining to an axil. Adj.: Angle between a branch or leaf and the stem it grows from.
AXIS (AK-sis) - The main or central line of development of any plant or organ; the main stem.
AZALEA POT - A proportionately broad, shallow pot, usually two thirds the height of a standard pot.
BACILLARIS, -e (bass-ill-AIR-iss) - Stick or stafflike.
BACK CROSS (or BACKCROSS) - A mating between hybrid progeny and one of the original parents.
BACKBULB - An old pseudobulb, often without leaves but still alive and bearing one or more eyes, frequently used for propagation, located behind the actively growing portion of a sympodial orchid.
BACTERICIDAL (back-ter-i-SIDE-al) - Destroys bacteria.
BACTERICIDE (bak-TEER-i-side) - A chemical substance that destroys bacteria.
BAMBUSIFOLIUS, -a, -um (bam-boo-see-FOH-lee-us) - Bamboo-leaved.
BANDED - Marked with crossbars or horizontal lines of color, or with very prominent ribs or other structure.
BARB - A short point or bristle; usually employed to designate points with reflexed or hooklike appendages.
BARBATULUS, -a, -um (bar-BAT-yew-lus) - Somewhat bearded; the beard small.
BARBATUS, -a, -um (bar-BAY-tus) - Bearded, i.e., provided or beset with long weak hairs or terminating in a mass of hairs, usually more or less straight and parallel. The negative is expressed by imberbis.
BARBIGERUS, -a, -um (bar-BIJ-er-us) - Bearded or bearing a beard, alluding to the fringed lip of many plants.
BARBULATUS, -a, -um (bar-bew-LAY-tus) - Somewhat bearded, or with fine or short beard; barbulate bark. The word is often used in a general way to designate the softer outer envelope of a stem or root. In this sense, it includes all that peels readily, as the bark of the hemlock and oak, used for tanning leather. In a stricter sense, it is applied to the corky layers formed on the outer surface of woody plants. It is formed from the active layer of tissue, the phellogen.
BARE-ROOT - of or pertaining to a plant prepared for transplanting or repotting by having all or most of the medium removed from its roots.
BASAL (BAY-suhl) - At or close to the base.
BASILARIS, -e (bay-sil-AIR-iss) - Pertaining to or at the bottom; basal.
BASIONYM (BASS-ee-oh-nim) - the original name on which a new name is based>
BASITONIC (BASE-eh-tawn-ick) - When the rostellum or viscidium are connected to the base of the anther.
BASKET - A container for growing orchids, usually made of interlocked strips of wood, that offers maximum drainage and aeration of the growing medium.
BEAK - A long, prominent and substantial point, applied particularly to prolongations of fruits and carpels.
BEARD - A long awn or bristle-like hairs.
BELLUS, -a, -um (BELL-us) - Beautiful; handsome.
BI- or bis- (BYE, BISS) - In Latin compounds, signifying "two" or "twice."
BIALATE (buy-AL-ate) - Having two wings or wing-like attachments.
BIALATUS, -a, -um (bye-ah-LAY-tus) - Two-winged.
BIAPICULATE (buy-a-PI-kew-late) - Terminated abruptly with two points.
BICALCARATUS, -a, -um (bye-kal-ka-RAY-tus) - Two-spurred; having two spurs; bicalcarate.
BICALLOSE (BUY-ka-lose) - Having two callosities (hard protuberance or thickening).
BICALLOSUS, -a, -um (bye-kal-LOH-sus) - Having two calluses, or hard projections on lip.
BICAMERATUS, -a, -um (bye-kam-er-RAY-tus) - Having two chambers; bicameral.
BICOLOR (BYE-koll-or) - Two-colored.
BICORNIS, -e (bye-KORN-is) - Two-horned; having two horns or hornlike spurs.
BICORNUTE (buy-KOR-nute) - Having two horns or horn-like processes.
BICORNUTUS, -a, -um (bye-kor-NEW-tus) - Two-horned.
BICTONIENSIS, -e (bik-toh-nee-EN-sis) - Of Bicton, near Sidmouth, England and refers to the house of Lord Rolle.
BIDENS (BYE-denz) - Two-toothed.
BIDENTATE (buy-DEN-tate) - Two-toothed.
BIDENTATUS, -a, -um (bye-den-TAY-tus) - Having two teeth; bidentate.
BIENNIAL - Of two seasons' duration from seed to maturity and death.
BIFARIOUS (buy-FAY-ri-us) or (bye-FAIR-ee-us) - Arranged in two rows; pointing two ways as in opposite leaves.
BIFID (BUY-fid) - Divided by a deep cleft into two parts; slit in the middle; divided into two equal lobes or parts by a median cleft.
BIFIDUS, -a, -um (BYE-fid-us) - Split in two to the middle; divided into two equal parts; bifid.
BIFOLIATE (buy-FO-li-at) or (BYE-foll-ee-it) - Having two leaves; two-leaved.
BIFORATE (BYE-for-ayt) - With two openings, pores or apertures.
BIFURCATE (BUY-fur-kate) - Divided into two branches; forked.
BIFURCATUS, -a, -um (bye-fur-KAY-tus) - Two-forked or two-pronged; bifurcate.
BIGENER (BUY-gen-air) - A plant resulting from the cross of two genera, hence a bigeneric hybrid.
BIGENERIC (BUY-gen-air-ik) - A hybrid between two species of different genera.
BIGIBBUS (buy-GIB-bus) - Having two small protuberances.
BILABIATE (BYE-lay-bee-it) or (buy-LAB-i-ate) - Two lips. Having two lips.
BILAMELLATUS, -a, -um (bye-lam-ell-LAY-tus) - Bearing or consisting of two plates; bilamellate.
BILATERAL - Having a body composed of only two corresponding halves, each half a mirror image of the other.
BILOBATE (buy-LOH-bate) - Having or divided into two lobes Two-lobed; parted into two lobes; bilobed.
BILOBED (BUY-lobed) - Two lobed.
BILOBULATE (buy-LOH-bu-late) - Having, or divided into two lobules.
BILOCULAR (bye-LOCK-yew-lar) - Two-celled; with two locules or compartments.
BINOMIAL (buy-NO-mi-al) - A name of two terms denoting, respectively, genus and species.
BIOTYPE (BUY-o-tipe) - Having the same genetic constitution.
BIPARTITE (buy-PAR-tite) - Divided in two parts from the middle upwards.
BIPINNATUS, -a, -um (bye-pin-AY-tus) - Twice-pinnate; when the primary divisions are pinnate.
BIPUNCTATUS, -a, -um (buy-PUNK-tay-tus) or (by-punk-TAY-tus) - Having two dots or spots.
BISEXUAL - Two-sexed; with both stamens and pistils.
BIVALENT (BUY-va-lent) - A pair of associated homologous chromosomes.
BLADE - The expanded portion of a leaf or floral segment.
BLANDUS, -a, -um (BLAN-dus) - Pleasing; charming; tempting; alluring.
BLOOM - A white powdery covering on the surface, may be waxy. Also another name for a flower.
BOISDUVAL SCALE (BWAS-doo-vahl skayl) - A pernicious sucking insect characterized by white extruded waxy coatings.
BOLIVIENSIS, -e (bo-liv-ee-EN-sis) - Native of Bolivia; Bolivian.
BOREALIS, -e (bor-ee-AL-iss) - Northern; of the north.
BOSS - A prominent center or projection on a flat and more or less circular surface.
BOTANICAL or BOTANICALS (bah-TAN-i-c'ls) - A term designating any species or genus of orchid which is not grown commercially for its flowers.
BOTRYTIS - a microscopic fungus that causes rot in flowers and fruits.
BRACHIATUS, -a, -um (brack-ee-AY-tus) or (BRAK-i-ay-tus) - Branched or having arms; in Brassia it refers to the very long tails; brachiate.
BRACHYPETALUS, -a, -um (brack-ee-PET-a-lus) - Having petals like arms. Having short petals.
BRACT - A modified leaf growing from the flower stem or enveloping a head of flowers. A reduced leaflike or scalelike organ embracing the base of the flower stem or aggregation of flowers.
BRACTEATE (BRAK-ti-ate) - Having a bract or bracts.
BRACTEATUS, -a, -um (brack-tee-AY-tus) - Bracted; having several or many bracts; bracteate.
BRACTEIFORM (BRAK-tee-i-form) or (BRACK-tee-form) - Of the shape and form of a bract.
BRACTEOLE (BRAK-ti-al) or (BRACK-tee-ohl) - A small bract.
BRACTEOSE (BRAK-tee-ose) - With numerous or conspicuous bracts.
BRACTEOSUS, -a, -um (brak-tee-OH-suss) - With numerous or conspicuous bracts.
BRACTESCENS (brak-TESS-enz) or (BRAK-tes-sens) - Having very large bracts or a strong tendency to develop bracts.
BRACHIATUS (BRAK-i-ay-tus) - Branched or having arms.
BRACHYPETALUS (brak-y-PET-a-lus) - Having short petals.
BRASILIENSIS, -e (brah-zil-ee-EN-siss) - Native of Brazil; Brazilian.
BRASSAVOLAE (bra-SAH-voh-lye) - Like a Brassavola.
BREAKING - Term used when a bud starts to open; or an eye or a root starts to sprout.
BREVIFOLIUS, -a, -um (brev-ee-FOH-lee-us) or (BREV-i-FOLE-i-us) - Short-leaved.
BREVIS, -e (BREV-is) - Short; abbreviated.
BREVISCAPUS, -a, -um (brev-ee-SCAY-pus) - Having a short scape or flower stalk.
BRISTLY (BRISS-lee) - Bearing stiff strong hairs or bristles.
BRUMALIS, -e (broo-MAY-lis) - Winter-flowering.
BRUNNEUS, -a, -um (BROON-ee-us) - Brown; russet.
BUCCINATOR (BYEW-sin-ay-ter) - Trumpeter; shaped like a crooked trumpet or shepherd's horn.
BUCEPHALUS (byew-SEFF-a-lus) - From the Greek, boukephalos (ox-head) - and refers to the appearance of an ox or bull's head.
BUD - An incipient or nascent shoot; the rudimentary or beginning state of a stem; in common speech, a thickened and condensed resting stage of a shoot, a flower or a leaf before expanding.
BUD INITIATION - Early stage of differentiation of the primordial flower stem and flowers.
BUFO (Boo-foh) - Resembling a toad.
BULB - A thickened part in a resting state made up of scales or plates on a much shortened axis; an informal term for pseudobulb.
BULB PAN - A shallow pot, typically one third the height of a standard pot, commonly used for genera such as Pleione.
BULBIFERUS, -a, -um (bul-BIFF-er-us) - Bulb-bearing.
BULBIFORMIS, -e (buhl-bi-FORM-is) - Shaped like a bulb; bulbiform.
BULBOSUS, -a, -um (bohl-BOH-sus) - Having bulbs; bulblike; with the structure or characteristics of a bulb; bulbous.
BULBOUS (BUL-bus) - Having the character of a bulb.
BULLATUS, -a, -um (bull-AY-tus) - With a surface blistered or puckered, as the leaf of a Savoy cabbage; inflated; bullate.
BURSICLE (BURR-si-kl) or (BER-sick-ul) - A pouch-like receptacle.
BURSIFORM (BURR-si-form) - Shaped like a purse.
BUSH HOUSE - A slat house.
CADUCOUS (kuh-DOO-cuss) - Said of plant parts falling early.
CAERULESCENS (see-roo-LESS-enz) - Having a tendency to blue; bluish.
CAERULEUS, -a, -um (see-ROOL-ee-us) - Sky-blue.
CAESIUS -a, -um (see-see-us) - Bluish-gray.
CAESPITOSE (SES-pi-tose) or (SESS-pih-tohs) - growing in dense clumps or tufts; having low stems; forming a turf or mat.
CAESPITOSUS -a, -um (ses-pi-TOH-sus) - Growing in tufts or dense clumps; forming a turf or mat.
CALATHIFORM (KAL-ih-thuh-form) - Cup-shaped.
CALCARATE (KAL-kar-ate) - Spurred.
CALCARATUS, -a, -um (kal-ka-RAY-tus) - Spurred; Having a spur; calcarate.
CALCAREOUS (kal-KAY-re-us) - Containing an excess of available calcium, usually in the form of calcium carbonate.
CALCARES (kal-CARE-eez) - Spurs.
CALCAREUS, -a, -um (kal-KAIR-ee-us) - Pertaining to or having a preference for lime; calcareous.
CALCARIFORM (kal-KAR-i-form) - Spur-shaped.
CALCARIFORMIS, -e (kal-kair-i-FORM-iss) - Spur-formed; shaped like a calcar or spur; calcariform.
CALCEIFORM (KAL-se-a-form) - Shaped like a slipper.
CALCEOLATE (KAL-see-oh-late) - Slipper-shaped.
CALCEOLATUS, -a, -um (kal-see-oh-LAY-tus) - Having a slipper-shaped organ; shaped like a shoe; calceolate.
CALCEOLUS (kal-SEE-oh-lus) or (kal-see-OH-lus) - Shaped like a little shoe.
CALIFORNICUS, -a, -um (kal-i-FOR-ni-kus) - Of California; Californian.
CALLISTUS, -a, -um (kal-LISS-tus) - Very beautiful.
CALLOSE (KAL-ohs) - Having a hard protuberance or thickening.
CALLOSITY (kal-LOSS-i-tee) - A thickened and hardened part; a callus.
CALLOSUS, -a, -um (kal-LOH-sus) - Having a hard protuberance or thickening; thick-skinned; with calluses; callose.
CALLUS (KAL-us) (plural: calli) - an isolated thickening of tissue, especially a stiff protuberance on the lip of an orchid; the soft parenchymateous tissue which forms over any wounded or cut surface of a stem. Cuttings develop new roots from the callus. (of orchids) - Prominence, varied in number, form and arrangement on the labellum of certain orchids (Cyrtostylis, Caladenia, Chiloglottis, et al.)
CALOCHEILUS (KAL-o-KY-lus) - Having a beautiful lip.
CALOCHILUS, -a, -um (kal-oh-KYE-lus) - Having a beautiful lip.
CALYCULATE (kuh-LICK-yuh-late) - Having bracts around the calyx resembling the outer calyx
CALYPTRATE (ka-LIP-trate) - Having a cap-shaped hood.
CALYPTRATUS, -a, -um (kal-lip-TRAY-tus) - Having a small cap-shaped hood; calyptrate.
CALYPTRIFORMIS, -e (kal-lip-tree-FORM-iss) - Hood-shaped; like a cap pulled over; calyptriform.
CALYX (KAY-liks) - The outer of the two series of floral segments. The calyx consists of sepals that may be separate or partly or fully fused to one another and which are commonly green in contrast to the more colorful petals.
CAMPANULATE (kam-PAN-you-lit) - Bell-shaped.
CAMPANULATUS, -a, -um (kam-pan-yew-LAY-tus) - Bell-shaped; cup-shaped with broad base; campanulate
CAMPESTRIS, -e (kam-PES-tris) - Of the fields or open plains.
CANALICULATE (KAN-a-LIK-you-lit) - With longitudinal grooves, striated, having one or more channels or grooves.
CANALICULATUS, -a, -um (kan-al-ik-yew-LAY-tus) - Longitudinally channeled; striated, with longitudinal grooves; canaliculate.
CANDIDUS, -a, -um (KAN-did-us) - Pure, lustrous white; shining or pure white.
CANE - An elongated psuedobulb, usually used when describing Dendrobiums or Epidendrums.
CANESCENS (kan-ESS-enz) - With off-white or gray hairs; canescent.
CANUS, -a, -um (KAY-nus) - Off-white; gray; ash-colored.
CAP - A sac-like removable covering of a part, as the operculum or anther-cap.
CAPENSIS, -e (kape-EN-siss) - From the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
CAPILLARIS, -e (kap-ill-AIR-iss) - Hairlike; resembling a hair; very slender.
CAPILLATUS, -a, -um (kap-ill-AY-tus) - Shaped like a head; growing on a head or dense cluster; capitate.
CAPITATE (KAP-i-tate) - Shaped like a head; collected into a head or dense cluster; being abruptly enlarged and globose at the tip. Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unstalked and aggregated into a dense cluster; of a stigma, globose, like the head of a pin.
CAPITULUM (ka-PIT-yew-lum) - A little head; a close body of sessile flowers.
CAPSULE (KAP-sl) or (kap-sewyl) - A dry dehiscent fruit composed of more than one carpel. A seed-pod.
CAPTAN (KAP-tan) - A fungicide used as a curative or preventive spray against bacterial and fungal diseases.
CARDINALIS, -e (kar-din-AY-liss) - Scarlet; cardinal red.
CARICINUS, -a, -um (kar-i-SYN-us) - Resembling a rushlike or grasslike plant or Carex; sedge-like.
CARINA (ka-RI-na) or (ka-RYE-na) (plural: carinae) - A structure or a part resembling a keel or ridge down the middle. A keel-like part or ridge on the surface of a leaf or floral segment;
CARINATE (KAR-i-nate) - Shaped like a keel or prow; having a ridge down the middle.
CARINATUS, -a, -um (ka-ri-NAYT-us) - Keeled; having a keel or keels; carinate.
CARINIFERUS, -a, -um (ka-ri-NIFF-er-us) or(kar-in-i-FAIR-us) - Having a keel; keel-bearing; cariniferous.
CARINIFORM (kar-IN-i-form) - Shaped like a keel.
CARNEUS, -a, -um (kar-NEE-us) - Flesh-colored; deep pink; carneous.
CARNOSUS, -a, -um (kar-NOH-sus) - Fleshy; pulpy; carnose.
CAROTENE (KAIR-oh-teen) - A ruby-red crystalline hydrocarbon found as a pigment in many plants; by extension, any carotenoid hydrocarbon.
CAROTENOID (ka-RA-ten-oyd) - A type of naturally occurring fat-soluble pigment responsible for the yellow through orange shades of flower color.
CARPEL (KAR-pel) – (1)A simple pistil, or one member of a compound pistil; the fundamental unit of a flowers gynoecium (female organ) usually differentiated into an ovary containing ovules (embryonic seeds) and a narrower style tipped by a stigma which receives pollen. Carpels may be single or multiple, and multiple carpels are often fused together. (2)The cell of a simple fruit or pistil, or one of the cells of a compound fruit or pistil.
CARTHAGENENSIS, -e (kar-tha-jin-EN-sis) - From Carthagena, Colombia.
CARTILAGINOUS (kar-ti-LAJ-i-nus) or (kar-ti-LAJ-in-us) - Hard and tough; resembling cartilage.
CASTANEOUS (Kass-tane-ee-us) - Dark brown, as in chestnut.
CATAPHYLL (CAT-a-fil) - A rudimentary leaf as a cotyledon, scale leaf, or bud-scale concerned with storage and/or protection. An undeveloped leaf, as at the beginning of a growth.
CAUDA (CAW-dah) (plural: caudae) - A tail. Stalk of the pollinium. A slender tail-like appendage
CAUDATE (CAW-date) - Having tails.
CAUDATUS, -a, -um (kaw-DAY-tus) - Furnished with a tail or tails; caudate.
CAUDICLE (CAW-di-k'l) or (KAW-dik-ul) - The slender stalk-like appendage of the pollinium or of the pollen masses in orchidaceous plants.
CAULESCENS (kaw-LESS-enz) - Having a tendency to develop stems; producing a visible stem; caulescent.
CAULESCENT (koh-LES-n't) - With visible stem; having a leafy stem above ground.
CAULINE (CALL-ine) or (KAW-line) - Of or on the stem; growing on or belonging to a stem.
CAVUS, -a, -um (KAY-vus) - Hollow; having a pit or excavation; cavity.
CEBOLLETA (SEE-bow-LET-ah) or (seh-boh-LEE-tah) - The leaves of the Oncidium, so-called, because they resemble those of chives (Allium schoenoprasum), the Spanish name for which is cebolleta..
CELL - One of the ultimate compartments of which plants are composed; a cavity, compartment or locule or an ovary or anther.
CELLULAR (sell-EWE-lar) or (SELL-u-lar) - Composed of cells; arranged in the manner of cells.
CENTIMETER (SEN-ti-mee-ter) - A measure of length equal to 0.3937 inch (2.54 cm = 1 inch) - or 10 millimeters.
CENTRAL AMERICA - Continental North America south of Mexico, comprising Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize; synonymous with Mesoamerica.
CENTRIFUGAL (sen-TRIFF-uh-gul) - Moving or directed outward from the center.
CENTRIPETAL (sen-TRIP-uh-tul) - Moving or directed toward the center.
CENTRUM (SEN-trum) - The central part of any structure; particularly the large central air space in hollow stems.
CEPIFOLIUS, -a, -um (sep-i-FOH-lee-us) - Having leaves resembling those of the onion.
CEPIFORMIS, -e (SEE-pi-FORM-us) or (sep-i-FORM-is) - Onion-shaped (Cepa - Latin name for onion).
CERACEOUS (sir-AY-shi-us) - Like wax; waxy.
CERACEUS, -a, -um (se-RAY-see-us) - Like wax; waxy; ceraceous.
CEREOLUS -a, -um (SEE-re-oh-lus) or (se-ree-OH-lus) - Waxy.
CEREOUS (SEE-re-us) - Waxy.
CERINUS, -a, -um (seer-EYE-nus) - Wax-colored; waxy.
CERNUOUS (SUR-new-us) - Somewhat pendulous, drooping.
CERNUUS, -a, -um (ser-NEW-us) - Somewhat pendulous, drooping, nodding.
CERULESCENS (see CAERULESCENS)
CESPITOSE (SES-pi-tose) - Matted; growing in tufts; in dense clumps.
CHAFF - Said of bracts and scales that become dry and membranelike.
CHANNELED (CHAN-uld) - Deeply grooved lengthwise; canaliculate.
CHARTACEOUS (kar-TAY-shus) - Resembling, or of the nature of paper; papery. Having the texture of writing paper; papery
CHEMOTAXONOMY (kee-mo-tax-ON-oh-mee) - The use of chemical evidence in elucidating taxonomic relationships.
CHIMAERA (kime-AIR-a) - A mythological monster that spouted fire; said of plants composed of mixed genetic tissues. Said of a plant having three pink and one white flower, the white flower being brought about by a chimaera.
CHINENSIS, -e (chie-NEN-sis) - From China. See also sinensis.
CHLORANTHUS, -a, -um (klo-RAN-thus) - Having green or greenish yellow flowers.
CHLOROCHILON (klo-ro-KYE-lon) - Green-lipped; having a green lip.
CHLOROPHYLL (KLO-ro-fil) or (KLOR-oh-fill) - The green coloring matter in plants essential in the manufacture of food by the plants.
CHLOROPLAST (KLOR-oh-plast) - A plastid containing chlorophyll, developed only in cells exposed to the light, functioning in photosynthesis and starch formation.
CHLOROPS (KLOR-ops) - Pale green; green-eyed.
CHLOROSIS (klo-RO-sis) - Condition induced by reduction in chlorophyll content in green tissue as evident by yellowing.
CHLOROTIC (klo-ROT-ik) or (klor-OT-ik) - Abnormally yellowed, due to a breaking down of the chlorophyll.
CHOCOENSIS (cho-ko-EN-siss) - Native of the Colombian province of Choco.
CHROMOGEN (KRO-mo-jen) - The color-generating material in a cell; genes for color.
CHROMOPLAST (KROH-mo-plast) - A pigmented plastid containing red or yellow pigment, as distinguished from the chloroplast, which contains green pigment; the coloring matter of flowers and fruits.
CHROMOSOME (KRO-mo-som) - One of the rod-like or bead-like bodies in the cell during division, containing the genes.
CHRYSANTHUS, -a, -um (cries-AN-thus) - Golden-flowered.
CHRYSOCREPIS, -e (cries-oh-KREEP-iss) - Golden-shoed.
CHRYSOTHYRSUS, -a, -um (cries-oh-THEER-sus) - Golden-racemed, a compact lilac-like inflorescence (thyrse) - of golden flowers.
CHRYSOTIS, -e (cries-OH-tis) - Golden-eared.
CHRYSOTOXUS, -a, -um (cries-oh-TOKS-us) - Golden-arched.
CILIA (SIL-i-a) - Eyelashes; similar fringe on leaf or bloom.
CILIARIS, -e (SIL-i-AIR-is) or (sil-ee-AIR-is) - Fringed with hairs; ciliate
CILIATE (SIL-i-ate) - Marginally fringed with stiff hair.
CILIATUS, -a, -um (sil-ee-AY-tus) - Marginally fringed with hairs that are usually stiff like eye-lashes; ciliate.
CINEREUS, -a, -um (sin-AIR-ee-us) - Ash-colored; light gray.
CINNABARINUS, -a, -um (sin-na-bar-EYE-nus) - Vermillion-colored; cinnabar red.
CINNAMOMEUS, -a, -um (sin-na-MOH-mee-us) - Cinnamon-colored; brown, like cinnamon.
CIRCINATE (SIR-sin-ate) - Rolled up on the axis with the apex at the center. Applied to vernation or foliation.
CIRCINATUS, -a, -um (sir-sin-AY-tus) - Coiled; rolled up on the axis with the apex at the center of the coil; circinate.
CIRCUMBOREAL (sir-kum-BOHR-e-al) - In northern regions around the world.
CIRCUMSCISSILE (sir-cum-SIS-il) - Breaking of a transverse split around the circumference. Opening or dehiscing of a fruit or anther at a line around the circumference.
CIRRATUS, -a, -um (si-RAY-tus) - Equipped with tendrils or cirri; cirrate.
CIRRHIFEROUS (si-RIFF-e-rus) - Tendril-bearing.
CIRRHUS (SIR-us) or (SEER-rus) - The tendril-like extension on lips of some Phalaenopsis, or on other organs in other genera, such as the columns of some Catasetums. (plural: cirrhi; also, cirrus, cirri).
CIRRUS (see CIRRHUS)
CITRINUS, -a, -um (si-TRYE-nus) - Lemon-colored.
CITROSMOS (si-TROS-mus) - Citron-scented.
CITROSMUS, -a, -um (si-TROZ-mus) - Lemon-scented.
CLADE (kleyd) - A taxon consisting of a single species and all its descendents.
CLADOGRAM (KLAY-doh-gram) - A branching diagram depicting the successive points of species divergence from common ancestral lines without regard to the degree of deviation.
CLASPING - Enveloping or embracing, such as a leaf surrounding a stem.
CLAVATE (CLAY-vate) - Club-shape, gradually thickening near one end.
CLAVATUS, -a, -um (klav-AY-tus) - Club-shaped; solid cylindrical, slender at the base and gradually thickening upward; clavate.
CLAVELLATE (CLA-vel-lit) - Diminutive of clavate.
CLAVELLATUS, -a, -um (klav-el-LAY-tus) - Shaped like a small club; clavellate; diminutive of clavate.
CLAVIFORM (CLAV-i-form) - Club-shaped.
CLAW - The long, narrow, stalklike base of a petal, sepal or lip.
CLAWED - Furnished with a claw.
CLEFT - Deeply cut.
CLEISTOGAMOUS (klise-TOG-a-mas) – (1) Self-fertilizing in the unopened flower; (2) having small inconspicious flowers that are pollenated from their own anthers.
CLINANDRIUM (kli-NAN-dri-um) (pl: clinandria)- In orchids, a cavity in the apex of the column between the anther sacs often containing the stigmatic surface. The anther-bed, that part of the column in which the anther lies
CLON - Plants propagated vegetatively from a single original seedling or plant.
CLONE - An individual plant raised from a single seed, with all its subsequent vegetative propagations. Clonal names are designated by single quotes in the plant name. For instance, the single seedling of the grex Slc. Hazel Boyd designated by the name Frae would be Slc.Hazel Boyd 'Frae'. All divisions of this seedling would also carry that clonal name. (See CLON)
ClRCUMBOREAL (SIR-cum-bor-e-al) - In northern regions around the world.
CLYPEATUS, -a, -um (kli-pee-AY-tus) - Shield-like; resembling a Roman shield; clypeate.
CM (see centimeter).
COAETANEOUs (ko-eh-TANE-ee-us) - Said of plants flowering as their leaves emerge.
COALESCE (koh-uh-less) - To merge; to grow together, referring to similar parts of a flower.
COALESCENCE (koh-uh-less-ence) - The union of similar parts or organs, or of those in the same series, as stamens with stamens and petals with petals.
COALESCENT (ko-a-LES-int) - Growing together; merging.
COARCTATUS, -a, -um (ko-ark-TAY-tus) - Pressed or crowded together; coarctate.
COCCINEUS (ko-SIN-e-us) - Bright scarlet.
COCCINEUS, -a, -um (kok-SIN-ee-us) - Bright scarlet.
COCHLEARIS, -e (kok-lee-AY-ris) - Spoon-shaped; shaped like one valve of clam shell.
COCHLEATE (KOCK-le-ate) or (koke-ley-ate) - Spiraled like a snail shell; Shell-shaped like a valve of a clamshell.
COCHLEATUS, -a, -um (kok-lee-AY-tus) - Shaped like a snail shell; spiral; cochleate.
COELESTIS, -e (see-LESS-tis) - Sky-blue.
COERULESCENS (see-roo-LESS-enz) - Almost dark blue; becoming dark blue.
COERULEUS, -a, -um (see-ROO-lee-us) - Dark blue.
COESPITOSE (SES-pit-ose) - Matted; growing in tufts; in dense clumps.
CO-EVOLUTION (ko-ev-uh-LOO-shun) - The principle that biological organisms do not evolve independently from each other; sometimes applied to the tandem evolution of orchid flowers and their pollinators.
COHERENT (ko-here-ent) or (koh-HEER-uhnt) - Having similar parts united.
COHESION (ko-HEE-zhon) - The union of two or more organs of same kind.
COLCHICINE (kohl-chi-SEEN) - A carcinogenic compound used to double chromosome numbers artificially through the interference of microtubule function during mitosis.
COLLATERAL (kuh-LAT-er-uhl) - By the side; standing side by side.
COLLINUS, -a, -um (kol-LYE-nus) - Pertaining to or from a hill.
COLORATUS, -a, -um (kol-or-AY-tus) - Colored.
COLOSSUS (ko-LAHS-sus) - Large; of gigantic size; colossal.
COLUMN - The central organ of the orchid flower, formed by the union of the stamens and pistils. In orchids, the fleshy structure in the flower's center consisting of a fused style, stigma, and stamens.
COLUMN FOOT - In some orchids, the extension of the base of the column to which the lip is attached; part of a mentum (which see) when fused with the lateral sepals. COLUMN-FOOT
COLUMN WINGS - Flange-like appendages protruding from the column of some orchid genera, such as Oncidium.
COLUMNAR (kuh-LUHM-ner) - Column- or pillar-shaped.
COMATUS, -a, -um (koh-MAY-tus) - Furnished with hair; hairy.
COMMUNIS, -e (ko-MEW-nis) - Common; general; growing in company.
COMMUNITY POT - A pot containing numerous small seedlings of an orchid progeny, transplanted from a flask. See compot.
COMMUTATUS, -a, -um (ko-mew-TAY-tus) - Changed, or changing.
COMOSE (KOH-mose) - Bearing a tuft or tufts of hair, esp. on a seed.
COMPACTUS, -a, -um (kom-PAK-tus) - Compact; dense.
COMPLANATE (kom-PLAN-ate) – Flattened.
COMPLANATUS, -a, -um (kom-plan-AY-tus) - Flattened; leveled; complanate.
COMPLEXUS, -a, -um (kom-PLEX-us) - Encircled; embraced.
COMPLICATE (KOM-pli-kate) - Folded over or back on itself.
COMPOST (KOM-post) - Organic material (e.g. litter, vegetable waste, manure) which may be broken down in soil to form humus.
COMPOT (KOM-pot) - A container with many seedlings in proximity prior to their spacing and growing on as individual plantlets. A community pot.
COMPOUND - Composed of a number of similar parts or divided into a number of similar divisions.
COMPRESSUS, -a, -um (kom-PRESS-us) - Flattened, especially laterally; compressed.
CONCAVE (KON -kave) - curved inward like a bowl
CONCAVUS, -a, -um (kon-KA-vus) - Hollowed out, basin shaped, concave.
CONCHIFORMIS, -e (kon-chee-FORM-is) - In the form of a shell; shell-shaped; conchiform.
CONCINNUS, -a, -um (kon-SIN-nus) - Neat; elegant; well-made.
CONCOLOR (KON-kol-or) - Of the same color throughout; uniformity of hue in sepals and petals.
CONDUPLICATE (kon-DOO-pli-kate) - Folded length-wise on the mid-rib so that halves are applied together by their faces. refers to character of leaves or petals within the bud
CONFLUENT (kon-FLEW-ent) or (KON-floo-ent) - Merging into each other; blended into one; convergent, going together.
CONFORMIS, -e (kon-FORM-is) - Conforming to the type; similar to related species.
CONGENER (KON-je-ner) - Of the same genus.
CONGENERIC (kon-jen-AIR-ik) - Belonging to the same genus.
CONGESTUS, -a, -um (kon-JEST-us) - Crowded very closely together; collected into a mass or body; congested.
CONGLOMERATE (kon-GLAH-mer-ate) - Clustered; brought together.
CONGLOMERATUS, -a,-um (kon-glo-mer-AY-tus) - Clustered; brought together; conglomerate.
CONICAL (kon-ih-kul) - Cone-shaped.
CONJUGATUS, -a, -um (kon-joo-GAY-tus) - Joined in pairs; coupled; conjugate.
CONJUNCTUS, -a, -um (kon-JUNK-tus) - Conjoined; joined together; conjunct.
CONNATE (KON-nate) - Congenitally or firmly united, referring to like organs. Having one organ attached wholly or in part to a like organ. For instance fused lateral sepals.
CONNATUS, -a, -um (kon-NAY-tus) - United; twin; having similar organs joined together; connate.
CONNECTIVE (kon-EK-tiv) - The portion of the column which connects the two portions of the anther.
CONNIVENT (kon-NIVE-ent) or (kon-NYE-vent) - Arched inward so that the points meet; converging but not united. Said of organs that stick together but are not fused (connate). Such parts appear to be fused but are actually free. Some Bulbophyllum exhibit lateral sepals that are connivent.
CONOPSEUS, -a, -um (kon-OP-see-us) - Resembling a gnat; canopied.
CONSPERSUS, -a, -um (kon-SPUR-sus) - Scattered.
CONSTRICTUS, -a, -um (kon-STRIK-tus) - Drawn together; constricted.
CONVALLARIOIDES (kon-val-lar-ee-OY-deez) - Resembling a Convallaria, or lily-of-the-valley.
CONVEX - Having a more or less rounded surface; bulging outward and curved. curved outward like the out-side of a bowl
CONVOLUTE (KON-vo-lute) - Rolled up longitudinally.
COOL-HOUSE - A growing house with minimum night temperatures about 50 degrees (F).
CO-PIGMENTS (ko-pig-mentz) - A type of flavonoid that is pale yellow to colorless and complexes with the anthocyanin pigments to form the visible color that naturally occurs within flowers.
CORALLOID (KOR-al-loid) - Branching, like coral.
CORDATE (KOR-date) - Heart-shaped.
CORDATUS, -a, -um (kor-DAY-tus) - Heart-shaped; cordate.
CORIACEOUS (KOR-ri-AY-shus) - Leathery in texture; firm; resembling or made to resemble leather; tough but pliable.
CORIACEUS, -a, -um (kor-ee-AY-see-us) - Leathery in texture; thick and tough; coriaceous.
CORK - The bark of the cork oak, a generic term for plaques or slabs made of cork.
CORM - A swollen, fleshy bulb-like base of a stem, without scales and usually subterranean.
CORMATOSE (kor-mah-toze) - Producing corms.
CORNEUS, -a, -um (kor-NEE-us) - Horny; hard and very dense in texture; corneous.
CORNICULATUS, -a, -um (kor-nik-yew-LAY-tus) - Bearing or terminating in a small horn-like protuberance or process; horned; corniculate.
CORNIGERUS, -a, -um (kor-NIJ-er-us) - Bearing or being furnished with horns
CORNU-CERVI (kor-nu-SER-vee) - Stag's horn; flattened like an antler.
CORNUCOPIATE (kor-nu-KOH-pee-ayt) - Shaped like a cornucopia or horn of plenty.
CORNUTA (kor-NEW-at) - Horned.
CORNUTE, CORNUTED (kor-NEWT), (kor-NEW-tid) - Horned.
CORNUTUS, -a, -um (kor-NEW-tus) - Horned, or horn-shaped; cornute.
COROLLA (ko-ROL-la) or (kor-OL-la) - Combined term for all the petals; the inner of the two series of floral segments, but the term is rarely used in reference to orchid flowers.
CORONARIUS, -a, -um (ko-ro-NAYR-ee-us) - Of or like a crown; used for or pertaining to garlands; encircling like a crown.
CORRECT NAME - The earliest legitimate name available for a plant except as provided otherwise by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
CORRUGATUS, -a, -um (ko-roo-GAY-tus) - Wrinkled or in folds; corrugated.
CORYMB (KOR-imb) - A short and broad, more or less flat-topped flower cluster; a form of centripetal inflorescence in which the outermost flowers expand first.
CORYMBOSE (kor-IMB-bose) - Resembling a corymb.
COSTATUS, -a, -um (kos-TAY-tus) - Ribbed, such as the midrib of a leaf; costate.
COTYLEDON (kot-i-LEE-don) - The primary or rudimentary leaf of the embryo of plants.
CRASSIFOLIUS, -a, -um (krass-i-FOH-lee-us) or (KRAS-i-FOE-li-us) - Thick-leaved.
CRASSINODE (krass-in-OH-dee) - Having markedly swollen joints.
CRASSINODIS, -e (krass-i-NOH-dis) - Having remarkably swollen joints, or nodes.
CRENATE (KRE-nate) - having margin cut into rounded projections or scallops.
CRENATUS, -a, -um (kren-AY-tus) - Having the margin cut into rounded scallops; crenate.
CRENULATE (KRE-new-late) - Minutely crenate.
CRENULATUS, -a, -um (kren-yew-LAY-tus) - Shallowly scalloped; minutely crenate; crenulate.
CREPIDATUS, -a, -um (kreep-i-DAY-tus) - Shaped like old fashioned sandals.
CREST - A toothed, fringed, or hairy thickened portion of the disc of the lip.
CRESTED - Bearing an elevated appendage or protruding fringes; furnished with a crest.
CRETACEUS, -a, -um (kret-AY-see-us) - Chalky white; pertaining to chalk.
CRINIFERUS, -a, -um (kri-NIFF-er-us) - Hairy; bearing hairs.
CRINITUS, -a, -um (kri-NYE-tus) - Having hairs upon the surface; furnished with long, generally weak, hairs.
CRISPUS, -a, -um (KRISP-us) or (KRIS-pus) - Crisped along the margins. Finely waved along the margin; closely curled; crisped.
CRISTAGALLI (kris-ta-GAL-lee) - A specific name meaning cock's-comb.
CRISTATA (kris-TA-ta) - Crested.
CRISTATUS, -a, -um (kris-TAY-tus) - Crested; bearing a crest; cristate.
CROCK, CROCKS - Small pieces of earthenware or flowerpots, or other materials, placed in the bottom of a pot to aid in drainage.
CROSS - To transfer pollen from a flower of one plant to the flower of a different plant; the progeny resulting from such pollination, or from similar pollinations.
CROSS POLLINATION - Fertilization of one plant by pollen from another.
CROSS-POLLINATE - To transfer the pollen from one flower or plant to the stigma of another flower or plant.
CRUCIATUS, -a, -um (kroo-see-AY-tus) - Cross-like or cross-shaped; in the form of a cross.
CRUCIFORM (KREW-si-form) - Cross-shaped.
CRUENTUS, -a, -um (kroo-EN-tus) - The color of blood, or with blood-colored spots.
CRUMENATUS, -a, -um (kroo-men-AY-tus) - Purse-shaped.
CRYPTOGAM (KRIP-toh-gam) - A flowerless plant, such as fern, moss, fungus, seaweed.
CRYPTOSE (KRIP-tose) - In Greek compounds, signifying concealed.
CRYSTALLINUS, -a, -um (kris-tal-LYE-nus) - Resembling ice in solidity or translucency; crystalline.
CUCULLATE (KU-ku-late) - Hooded, having the basal edges rolled inward.
CUCULLATUS, -a, -um (kew-kew-LAY-tus) - Hooded or hood-shaped; having the margins curved inward to resemble a hood; cucullate.
CUCUMERINUS, -a, -um (kew-kew-mer-EYE-nus) - Resembling a cucumber.
CULTIVAR (KUL-to-var) or (KUHL-tih-vahr) - A cultivated plant and its vegetative propagations; a horticultural variety or strain. The term "cultivar" is used to replace "variety" for the naming of horticultural plants. Cultivar names are not Latinized.
CULTIVATION (KUHL-tih-VAY-shun) - The artful growing of a plant in a situation other than its natural habitat.
CULTRATUS, -a, -um (kul-TRAY-tus) - Shaped like a knife blade.
CUNEATE (KU-ne-ate) - Wedge-shaped or triangular with the narrow end at the point of attachment.
CUNEATUS, -a, -um (kew-nee-AY-tus) - Wedge-shaped or triangular, with the tapered narrow end at the point of attachment.
CUNICULUS (kew-NIK-uh-luhs) - a small conduit, passageway or burrow,
CUPREUS, -a, -um (KEW-pree-us) - Copper-colored; coppery.
CUPULIFORM (KUP-ewe-lih-form) - Shaped like a cup.
CURTUS, -a, -um (KER-tus) - Shortened.
CURVATUS, -a, -um (ker-VAY-tus Curved.
CURVIFOLIUS (kur-vi-FOH-li-us) – Having curving leaved.
CUSP - A sharp and rigid point; a point; pointed end.
CUSPIDATE (KUS-pi-date) - Terminating in a point.
CUSPIDATUS, -a, -um (kus-pi-DAY-tus) - Tipped with a sharp rigid point; cuspidate.
CUTICLE - The outermost layer of the cells of the epidermis.
CUTTING - A severed vegetative or asexual part of a plant used in propagation. cyaneus, -a, -um (sy-AY-ne-us) - Bright blue, azure.
CYLINDRICUS, -a, -um (sil-IN-dri-kus) - Long and slender, the horizontal section circular; cylindrical.
CYMBIFORM (SIM-bi-form) - Boat-shaped; convex and keeled.
CYMBIFORMIS, -e (sim-bi-FORM-iss) - Boat-shaped; convex and keeled.
CYME (SIME) - An inflorescence in which the primary axis bears a single central or terminal flower that blooms first.
CYMOSE (SI-mose) - Full of shoots.
CYMOSE (SYE-mohz) - Resembling a cyme (see above).
CYTOGENETICS (sye-toh-je-NET-iks) - Study of the part played by cells in heredity, mutation and evolution.
CYTOKININ (sy-toh-KYN-in) - A class of plant hormones.
CYTOLOGY (sye-TOL-oh-jee) - The scientific study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.
DACTYLOIDES (dak-til-OY-deez) - Resembling fingers; fingerlike.
DAMP or DAMP DOWN - To spray or sprinkle the walks, benches, etc. of a greenhouse to cool it or to increase humidity without directly watering the pots or plants.
DAMPING DOWN - To spray or sprinkle the walks, benches, etc., of a greenhouse to cool it or to increase the humidity without watering the pots or plants.
DAMPING OFF - Disease causing abrupt death of apparently healthy seedlings, usually caused by infestations of the fungi Botrytis vulgaris or Phythium debaryanum under conditions of high humidity and temperature.
DEBILIS, -e (DEB-ill-is) - Weak; frail; not robust.
DECIDUOUS (de-SID-yew-us) or (di-SIJ-oo-uhs) - A plant that sheds all its leaves at maturity or at certain seasons. The shedding of leaves or other organs at maturity or at the end of the growing season; not permanent, transitory
DECIPIENS (de-SIP-iens) - Deceptive; not obvious.
DECLINATE (DEK-luh-neyt) - Bent or curved downward or forward.
DECORUS, -a, -um (dek-OR-us) - Decorative; becoming; comely.
DECUMBENS (dee-KUM-benz) - Reclining but with the growing end upright; decumbent.
DECUMBENT (di-KUM-bent) - Of stems, branches, etc., lying or trailing on the ground with extremity tending to ascend.
DECURRENS (dee-KUR-enz) - Extending down the stem or ovary below the point of insertion; decurrent.
DECURRENT (di-KUR-ent) - Extending down the stem below the point of insertion. With base continuous along the stem in the form of a wing.
DECURVED (d~KURV-d) - Curved downward.
DECUSSATE (de-KUS-sate) or (dee-KUSS-ayt) - Arranged in pairs alternately crossing each other at regular angles; arrangement of opposite leaves in which each leaf pair is oriented at right angles to the next pair below it. This creates four vertical ranks of leaves.
DEFLEXED (de-FLEKS-d) - Bent or turned down or away abruptly.
DEFLEXUS, -a, -um (dee-FLEX-us) - Bent abruptly downward; deflexed.
DEFOLIATION (DE-fol-i-ay-shun) - The casting off or falling of the leaves.Shedding of leaves either as a season normality or as the result of insect attack or physiological disturbance.
DEHISCE (de-HIS) - To split into definite parts by valves, slits, or pores, as the capsules of orchids. A bursting open of a capsule or pod.
DEHISCENCE (de-HIS-ens) or (dee-HISS-enz) - The opening of an anther for the discharge of pollen, or of a seed pod. the splitting into definite parts by valves, slits or pores, as the capsule or fruit of orchids.
DEHISCENT (de-HIS-sent) - Splitting open along definite lines; opening spontaneously at maturity to release seeds.
DEHISCING (de-HIS-sing) - Same as dehiscence.
DELICATUS, -a, -um (del-i-KAY-tus) - Tender; delicate.
DELTOID (DEL-toid) - Triangular in shape; shaped like the Greek letter delta.
DELTOIDEUS, -a, -um (del-TOY-dee-us) - Broadly triangular; shaped like the Greek letter delta (D); deltoid.
DENDRICOLUS, -a, -um (den-DRI-koh-lus) - Living on trees; epiphytic.
DENDROGRAM (DEN-droh-gram) - A pictorial representation of presumed phylogenetic history, a family tree.
DENDROIDEUS, -a, -um (den-DROY-dee-us) - Treelike; tree-shaped; dendroid.
DENDRON (DEN-drun) - In Greek compounds, signifying a tree.
DENSIFLORUS, -a, -um (den-si-FLOW-rus) or (den-si-FLOR-us) - Having flowers densely clustered; densely flowered..
DENSIFOLIUS, -a, -um (den-si-FOH-li-us) - Densely leaved.
DENSUS, -a, -um (DEN-sis) or (DEN-sus) - Thick; compact; dense. Alludes to the habit of the plant.
DENTATE (DEN-tate) - Having a toothed margin, notched. (See bidentate and tridentate).
DENTATUS, -a, -um (den-TAY-tus) - Toothed; furnished with teeth; dentate.
DENTICULATE (den-TIK-yew-late) - Having very small tooth-like projections.
DENTICULATUS, -a, -um (den-tik-yew-LAY-tus) - Minutely toothed; slightly dentate; denticulate.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) - (dee-ox-ee-RYE-bow-new-clay-ick As-id) - The primary genetic material of all cells contained within the chromosomes.
DEPAUPERATUS, -a, -um (dee-paw-per-AY-tus) - Imperfectly developed; lacking; depauperate
DEPENDENS (dee-PEND-enz) - Hanging down; dependent.
DEPRESSUS, -a, -um (dee-PRESS-us) - Flattened; pressed down; depressed.
DESCENDING - In a gradually downward direction.
DESERT COOLER - The name for a commonly used self-contained evaporative cooler.
DETERMINATE (de-TUR-mi-nate) or (dee-TUR-muh-neyt) - Condition of inflorescence when the terminal flower opens first and so terminates further elongation of the floral axis.
DEXTROSE (DEK-strohs) - Turning toward the right.
DI or DIS (DYE or Dihs) - The Greek prefix for two.
DIAGNOSIS - The comparative statement, usually in Latin, that typically appears with the description of a new taxon.
DIANDROUS (dye-an-druhs) - Having two anthers.
DIAPHANOUS (dye-AF-a-nus) - Transparent or translucent.
DIAPHANUS, -a, -um (dye-AFF-an-us) - Transparent or translucent; diaphanous.
DICARPELLOUS (dye-KAR-pel-lus) - Composed of two carpels.
DICHOGAMY (dye-KOG-a-mi) - The maturing of sexual parts at different times, effect being avoidance of self-pollination.
DICHOTOMUS, -a, -um (dye-KOT-oh-mus) - Forked in pairs; repeatedly dividing into two branches; dichotomous, as in a dichotomous key.
DICHOTOMY (dye-KOT-o-mi) - Regular division into pairs.
DICHROMUS, -a, -um (dye-KROH-mus) - Two-colored; of two distinct colors.
DICLINOUS (di-KLYN-us) - Unisexual, having the androecium and gynoecium in separate flowers.
DICOTYLEDONOUS (dye-kot-i-LEE-don-us) - Having two cotyledons.
DIDYMOUS (DID-i-mus) - Twin; two-parted; found in pairs.
DIDYMUS, -a, -um (DID-i-mus) - Twin; found in pairs; somewhat two-parted.
DIFFERENTIATION (dif-fer-en-she-ay-shun) - The physiological and morphological changes that occur in a cell, tissue or organ during development to a different state.
DIFFORMIS, -e (di-FORM-is) - Of unusual form in comparison with the normal for the genus.
DIFFUSE (di-FEWZ) - Of open, loosely spreading habit.
DIFFUSUS, -a, -um (dif-FEW-sus) - Loosely branching or spreading; of open growth; diffuse.
DIGITATE (DIJ-i-tate) - Finger-like. Branches clustering from one point like fingers on a hand.
DIGITATUS, -a, -um (dig-i-TAY-tus) - Shaped like an open hand; finger-like; digitate.
DILATATUS, -a, -um (dye-la-TAY-tus) - Spread out; dilated.
DIMIDIATE (dye-MEE-dee-ayt) - Said of an object having one half missing, halved.
DIMORPHIC (dye-MOR-fik) - Having two shapes.
DIMORPHISM (dye-MOR-fizm) - Members of the same species, having two distinct shapes or structures.
DIMORPHUS, -a, -um (dye-MOR-fuss) - Having two dissimilar forms of leaf, flower or fruit on the same plant.
DIOECIOUS (dye-EE-shus) - Unisexual. Male and female plants born on separate plants. The plant has either pistillate or staminate flowers but not both. Flowers can be termed dioecious if they are of different sexes and borne on the same plant.
DIPHYLLOUS (dye-FILL-us) - Having two leaves.
DIPHYLLUS, -a, -um (dye-FILL-us) - Having two leaves; diphyllous.
DIPLOID (DIP-loid) - Having two matched sets of chromosomes. (2n)
DIPTERUS, -a, -um (DIP-ter-us) - Two-winged; dipterous.
DISC - In orchids, the face or upper surface of the middle portion of the lip.
DISCOLOR (DIS-kol-or) - Having two-toned leaves, such as green above and purple below. two different and usually distinct colors.
DISCRETE - Separate, not coalescent.
DISSECTUS, -a, -um (dis-SEK-tus) - Divided into deep lobes or segments; deeply cut; dissected.
DISTAL (DIS-tul) - Remote from the place of attachment.
DISTAL EDGE - Remote from the point of attachment or origin; as, the distal end of a bone or muscle; -- opposite of proximal.
DISTICHOUS (DIS-tik-us) - In two vertical rows on opposite sides of the stem.
DISTICHUS, -a, -um (DIS-tik-us) - Arranged in two rows or ranks; distichous.
DIURNAL - opening flowers during the daytime. Opposite of noctural.
DIURNUS, -a, -um (dye-URN-us) - Of the daytime; with flowers open during the day; diurnal.
DIVARICATE (dye-VAR-i-cate) - Diverge, branch; spread apart, branch off.
DIVARICATUS, -a, -um (dye-vayr-i-KAY-tus) - Separated by a wide angle; widely spreading; divaricate.
DIVERGENS (dy-VERJ-enz) - Spreading out widely; divergent.
DIVISION - The technique of propagating plants by cutting or breaking apart the pseudobulbs or stems at the rhizome; a single propagation derived in that manner. Separation of a plant into small units.
DIVISUS, -a, -um (di-VYE-sus) - Separated to the base; divided.
DIXANTHUS, -a, -um (dye-ZAN-thus) - Having flowers of two shades of yellow.
DM (decimeter) - A measure of length equal to 3.937 inches or 10 centimeters.
DOLABRIFORM (do-LAB-re-form) - Hatchet-shaped.
DOLABRIFORMIS, -e (doh-lab-ri-FORM-is) - Hatchet-shaped.
DOLOSUS, -a, -um (doh-LOH-sus) - Deceitful; appearing like some other plant.
DOMINANT - Said of an allele (any of several forms of a gene responsible for hereditary variation....see allele) that expresses itself relative to its sister allele.
DOMINGENSIS, -e (doh-min-GEN-sis) - Native of Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic)
DORSAL (DOOR-sal) or (DAWR-suhl) - Designating or pertaining to the surface turned away from the axis, as the under or outer side of the leaf. In an orchid flower, the apparent upper sepal is called the dorsal sepal. Referring to the upper surface of an organ such as a leaf; that surface turned away from the axis; opposite of ventral.
DORSIFEROUS (dor-SIF-air-us) - Bearing anything on the back.
DORSOVENTRALLY (dor·so·ven·tral-ee) – flattened like a leaf of flounder.
DOUBLE - Said of flowers that have more than the usual number of floral envelopes, particularly of petals.
DOWNY - Covered with very short and weak soft hairs.
DRACO (DRAY-ko) - Specific name meaning a dragon.
DUBIOSUS, -a, -um (doo-bee-OH-sus) - Doubtful; not in conformity to the pattern of the genus; dubious.
DULCIS, -e (DULL-sis) - Sweet.
DUMOSUS, -a, -um (doo-MOH-sus) - Low and branching, as a bush; bushy; shrubby.
DUNENSIS, -e (doo-NEN-sis) - Of or pertaining to sand dunes.
DUPLICATE - Double or doubled over, as the two similar sides of a leaf.
E- (Latin prefix) - A lack of
EAST INDIA HOUSE - Hottest house for growing plants.
EBRACTEATE (ee-BRAK-te-ate) - Lacking bracts.
EBRACTEATUS, -a, -um (ee-brak-tee-AY-tus) - Without bracts; ebracteate.
EBURNEUS, -a, -um (ee-BURN-ee-us) - Ivory-like; ivory-white.
ECALCARATE (ee-KAL-kar-ayt) - Without calcar or spur.
ECALLOSE (ee-KAL-lohz) - Without a callus; lacking any protuberance.
ECCALLOSE (e-CAL-lose) - Without protuberances.
ECHINATE (EK-in-ate) - Prickly.
ECHINATUS, -a, -um (ek-in-AY-tus) - Furnished with prickles or bristles; spiny; echinate.
ECHINOCARPUS, -a, -um A spiny or echinate fruit.
ECOLOGY - That branch of biology that deals with the mutual interaction between organisms and their environment.
ECOPHENE (EE -ko-feen) - Group of plants, essentially of the same genetic constitution, with members differing in appearance and reproductive vigor due to the influences of their varying environments.
ECORNUTUS, -a, -um (e-kor-NEW-tus) - Without horns; ecornute.
ECOSTATE (ee-KOS-tayt) - Without ribs.
ECOTYPE (EE-ko-type) - Plants of a genetically stabilized modification to a variant ecology such as dwarfed individuals from a relatively more xeromorphic habitat. Individual variant from species. In genetics constitution adjusted as response to a particular environment.
EDAPHIC (ee-DAFF-ik) - Relating to soil and topography, rather than climate. Relating to soil as medium for plant growth.
EDAPHON (e-DAF-on) - Flora and fauna of a soil.
EDENTATE (ee-DEN-tayt) - Without teeth.
EFFUSUS, -a, -um (ef-FEW-sus) - Loosely spreading; very diffuse; effuse.
EGLANDULOSE (ee-GLAND-yew-lohz) - Without glands.
ELATIOR (el-AY-tee-or) - Taller.
ELATUS, -a, -um (e-LAY-tus) - Tall; taller than the parts or organs of the plant would lead one to expect; tall in comparison with its near allies.
ELEGANS (EL-e-gans) - Very choice; attractive; worthy of being chosen; elegant.
ELLIPSOID (e-LIP-soy'd) - Oblong, with regularly rounded ends. A spheroid; a solid figure generated by the revolution of an ellipse about one of its axes. It is called a prolate spheroid, or prolatum, when the ellipse is revolved about the major axis, and an oblate spheroid, or oblatum, when it is revolved about the minor axis.
ELLIPTIC (e-LIP-tik) - Of oval surface widest at middle and tappered to rounded ends.
ELONGATE (ee-LONG-ayt) - Drawn out in length; lengthened.
ELONGATED (e-LON-gay-ted) - Drawn out in length
EMARGINATE (e-MAR-ji-nate) - Notched at the apex as a leaf or petal; having a notched tip, or slightly indented surface.
EMARGINATUS, -a, -um (ee-mar-jin-AY-tus) - Having a shallow notch at the apex; emarginate.
EMBRYO (EM-bri-oh) - The zygote or developing plantlet in the seed.The plantlet in the seed.
ENDEMIC (EN-dem-ik) or (en-DEM-ik) - occurring in the wild in only one readily defined region. Native to a particular region, as a country or an island, and not found elsewhere.
ENDOCARP (EN-doh-carp) - The inner layer of the wall of a ripened fruit.
ENDOGENOUS (en-DOJ-uh-nuhs) - Growing or developing from or on the inside.
ENDOSPERM (EN-do-spurm) - The nutritive tissue within seeds of flowering plants, surrounding and absorbed by the embryo. Starch or other food outside or around the embryo; albumen; nutritive matter in seed plant ovules; absent in most orchids.
ENSATUS, -a, -um (en-SAY-tus) - Sword-shaped.
ENSIFOLIUS, -a, -um (en-si-FOH-lee-us) - Having sword-shaped leaves.
ENSIFORM (EN-si-form) - Sword shaped, having sharp edges and tapering to a slender point.
ENSIFORMIS, -e (en-si-FORM-is) - Straight, with a sharp point like a sword; ensiform.
ENTIRE (en-TIRE) - With margin unbroken, in reference to the floral segments and leaf-blade. Having the margin continuous, not broken with teeth or serrations.
ENTOMOPHILUS, -a, -um (ent-oh-MOFF-ill-us) - Insect-loving; a specific name applied to certain plants that attract insects; entomophilous.
ENTOMOPHILY (en-to-MOF-i-li) or (en-toh-MOFF-ill-ee) - Pollination through agency of insects.
ENVIRONMENT (en-vahy-ern-muhnt) - The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions and influences.
ENZYME (EN-zime) - Organic substance capable of effecting by catalytic action the transformation of some other compound or compounds.
EPHEMERAL (e-FEM-er-al) - Lasting for only a brief period; transitory.
EPI- A Greek prefix signifying "on" or "upon."
EPICALYX (ep-ee-KAY-licks) - A series of bracts, resembling or near the calyx
EPICARP (EP-i-karp) - The outer layer or surface of the pericarp, as the rind or peel of some fruits.
EPICHILE (EP-i-kil) or (EP-i-kyle) - The terminal lobe of the labellum in certain orchids such as Stanhopea..
EPIDENDROIDES (e-pi-den-DROY-deez) - Resembling an Epidendrum.
EPIDERMIS (ep-i-DER-mis) - Outermost primary tissue layer covering entire plant body, functioning primarily as a controller of water loss and as protective covering against injury and as a control against loss of water.
EPIGAEUS, -a, -um (eh-pi-JEE-us) - Growing close to the ground; epigeous.
EPIGYNOUS (ih-PIJ-uh-nuhs) - Growing on top of the ovary.
EPINENDROIDES (e-pi-den-DRO-id-ez) - Resembling an Epidendrum.
EPIPARASITIC (ep-i-pair-ah-SIT-ick) - Said of organisms such as saprophytic orchids that are not primary saprophytes but instead live as parasites upon wholly saprophytic fungal symbionts.
EPIPHYTE (EP-i-fite) - An air plant. A plant which grows upon other plants or other means of support but is not parasitic upon them, deriving its needed moisture from the air. Many orchids are epiphytic in their natural habitats.
EPIPHYTIC (EP-i-fit-ik) or (ep-i-FIT-ik) - A plant which is an epiphyte. Pertaining to an epiphyte; having the character of an epiphyte.
EPSEUDOBULBOUS (ee-SOO-do-BUL-bus) - Without pseudobulbs.
EQUALIS, -e (ee-KWAY-lis) - Equal.
EQUESTRIS, -e (ee-KWES-tris) - Knightly, courteous, very handsome; pertaining to a horse, or like the rider of a horse.
EQUITANT (e-KWA-tant) or (EK-kwi-tant) - Overlapping each other; -- said of leaves whose bases are folded so as to overlap and bestride the leaves within or above them, as in Oberonia, Psygmorchis and Tolumnia (equitant oncidiums).
ERECTUS, -a, -um (er-REK-tus) - Upright; erect.
ERICOID (ER-ii-koid) - With slender leaves, often sharp pointed and xeromorphic. Pertaining to or resembling the genus Erica.
ERICOIDES (e-ri-KOY-deez) - Resembling Erica or heather.
ERINACEUS, -a, -um (e-rin-AY-see-us) - Resembling a hedgehog; spiny; erinaceous.
EROSE (ER-os) -Having a jagged edge or appearing to have been gnawed. Sepal, petal and lip margins may be entire (smooth), erose (jagged) or dentate (appearing to have teeth), fimbriate (fringed) or ciliate (fringed so finely as to appear like hair).
EROSTRATE (e-ROS-trate) - Without a beak.
EROSUS, -a,-um (ee-ROH-sus) - Jagged, as if gnawed; having a ragged edge; erose.
ERUBESCENS (e-roo-BESS-enz) - Blushing; growing rosy red.
ERYTHROCARPUS, -a, -um (e-ri-thro-KAR-pus) - Having red fruit.
ESCULENTUS, -a, -um (es-kew-LEN-tus) - Edible; related to eating.
ESTRIATUS, -a, -um (es-tri-AY-tus) - Without stripes.
ESTIVATION (Se aestivation)
ETHYLENE (ETH-ill-een) - A gas that acts as a hormone signaling numerous physiologic changes including flower senescence.
ETIOLATION (e-ti-o-LAY-shun) - Effect on green plant from nonproduction of chlorophyll, the normally green tissue becoming white or yellow by unmasking of carotenoides within the chloroplasts.
EUROPAEUS, -a, -um (yoor-o-PEE-us) - European.
EVANESCENT (ev-a-NESS-sent) or (ev-a-NES-ent) - Short-lived; not lasting for a long period: to wilt or to lose the scent.
EVAPORATIVE COOLER (ih-vap-ruh-tive kool-er) - A mechanism that cools air by the evaporation of water. See desert cooler.
EVECTUS, -a, -um (e-VEK-tus) - Exalted, proud, stately.
EVERGREEN (EV-er-green) or (eh-ver-green) - Retaining foliage throughout the year, in contrast to those that are deciduous.
EVERTUS, -a, -um (ee-VERT-us) - Turned inside out.
EXALTATUS, -a, -um (eks-all-TAY-tus) - Very tall; lofty; exalted.
EXASPERATUS, -a, -um (eks-as-per-AY-tus) - Roughened; having a rough surface.
EXCAVATUS, -a, -um (eks-cav-VAY-tus) – Hollowed; Hollowed out.
EXCELLENS (eks-SELL-enz) - Excelling; excellent.
EXCELSIOR (ex-SELL-see-or) - A shaved-wood product used to provide surface area in evaporative coolers.
EXCELSUS, -a, -um (eks-SELL-sus) - Tall.
EXCENTRIC (ik-SEN-trik) - One sided or off center.
EXCISUS, -a, -um (eks-SYE-sus) - Cutaway; cut out; excise.
EXCRESCENCES (eks-KRESS-en-ses) - Small warty outgrowths.
EXCURRENT (eks-KUR-ent) or (ik-SKUR-uhnt) - Passing beyond, as a nerve of a floral segment or leaf projecting beyond the margin; projecting beyond the apex, as the midrib of a mucronate leaf. Said of a leaf base that extends beyond the margin of the blade.
EXFOLIATING (ex-FOL-ee-ayt-ing) - Peeling off in thin layers.
EXIGUUS, -a, -um (eks-IG-yew-us) - Very little; meager; poor.
EXIMIUS, -a, -um (eks-IM-ee-us) - Out of the ordinary; distinguished.
EXINE (EKS-ine) - The outer layer of a pollen grain.
EXOCARY (EKS-oh-kary) - The outer layer of the pericarp.
EXOTIC (eg-ZOT-ik) - Not native; foreign. Not endemic.
EXPANSUS, -a, -um (eks-PAN-sus) - Expanded.
EXPLANT (EKS-plant) - A small piece of tissue removed from a donor plant and placed in tissue culture.
EXPLANTE (EKS-plant-ay) - Lying flat.
EXSERTED (EKS-ser-tid) or (ek-SER-ted) - Protruding, e.g. of stamens with respect to a corolla tube. Projecting beyond a common point.
EXSICCATED (EK-sik-kay-ted) - Dried; having the moisture removed.
EXTINE (EKS-tin or tine) - The outer coating of a pollen grain.
EXTRORSE (eks-TRORSE) - Looking or facing outward.
EXUDANS (EKS-yew-danz) - Exuding.
EYE - A bud on the rhizome of a sympodial orchid that will eventually develop into a new psuedobulb and flower. The incipient bud of a vegetative growth, particularly in sympodial orchids.
FALCATE (FAL-kate) - Flat, curving and tapering to a point; like a sickle. Scythe-shaped; curved and flat, tapering gradually.
FALLAX (FAL-laks) - Deceptive; false; fallacious.
FAMILY - The usual major subdivision of an order or suborder, commonly comprising a plurality of related genera; ending with -aceae as in Orchidaceae.
FAN AND PAD - A greenhouse cooling system that consists of a moistened high surface area pad on one wall in conjunction with exhaust fans on an opposing wall, the air being cooled by evaporation.
FARINACEUS, -a, -um (fa-ri-NAY-see-us) - Containing starch, or starch-like materials; mealy, like flour; farinaceous.
FARINOSE (FAIR-i-nose) - Covered with a meal-like powder.
FARINOSUS, -a, -um (fa-ri-NOH-sus) - Covered with meal-like powder; mealy; powdery; farinose.
FASCIATION (FASH-I-AY-shun) or (fa-see-AY-shun) - Malformation in which normally cylindrical structures (stems, petioles, roots) become flattened to form ribbon or thallus-like structures. A malformation caused by an abnormal growing point, the expanded mass often called a crested, the plant a "crested" form.
FASCIATUS, -a, -um (fa-see-AY-tus) - Bound together; clustered or grouped into bundles; fasciated.
FASCICLE (FAS-i-kul) - A close cluster or bundle of flowers, leaves, stems or roots.
FASCICLED (FAS-ikl`d) - Growing in a bundle, tuft, or close cluster; as, the fascicled leaves of the pine or larch; the fascicled roots of the dahlia; fascicled muscle fibers; fascicled tufts of hair.
FASCICULAR (fa-SIK-cu-lar) - Arranged in a fascicle, a bundle or cluster.
FASCICULARIS, -e (fa-sik-yew-LAIR-is) - In close bundles or clusters.
FASCINATOR (fa-si-NAY-tor) - Unusually attractive; fascinating.
FASTIGIATUS, -a, -um (fa-sti-jee-AY-tus) - Having branches close together and erect, often forming a column; fastigiate.
FAVEOLATE (fah-VEE-oh-layt) - Honey-combed.
FECUNDATION (fee-kun-DAY-shun) - Fertilization of the female by the male to form a new individual; impregnation.
FEMININE - Pistillate (in higher plants); possessing the female sex apparatus.
FENESTRALIS, -e (fen-neh-STRAY-lis) - Pierced or furnished with window-like openings; fenestrate.
FERMATE (FER-mayt) - An organic fungicide, ferric dimethyl dithiocarbonate, useful as a spray or dust to combat leaf spot, stem rot, root rot and similar infectious diseases.
FERRUGINEUS, -a, -um (fer-roo-JIN-ee-us) - Rust-colored; rusty; ferrugineous.
FERTILE (FUR-til) - Said of pollen bearing stamens and seed bearing fruits.
FERTILIS, -e (FER-till-is) - Capable of producing numerous seeds or viable pollen; fruitful; fertile.
FERTILIZATION - (1) The fusion of two gametes to form a new individual (zygote) -; the effect of pollination, resulting in the conversion of the flower into fruit and of the ovules into seed. (2) The application of nutrients to the growing medium, soil or substrate, for absorption by the roots.
FERTILIZER - A substance, organic or inorganic, that provides nutritional elements necessary to plant growth; a plant food.
FERUS, -a, -um (FER-us) - Wild.
FESTIVUS, -a, -um (FES-ti-vus) - Beautiful; gay; bright; festive.
FETID (FET-ed or FEE-tid) - Having a disagreeable odor.
FETIDUS, -a, -um (FET-i-dus) - Having a disagreeable odor; fetid. (See also foetid) -
FIBRILLOSUS, -a, -um (fib-ri-LOH-sus) - Composed of fine fibers or threads; fibrous; fibrillose.
FIBROSUS, -a, -um (fye-BROH-sus) - Composed of or resembling fibers; the texture of roots as in Listera; fibrous.
FIBROUS (FYE-brus) - Composed of or resembling fibers; the texture of roots; a tufted root system.
FILAMENT (FIL-a-ment) - Sterile stalk of a stamen bearing the anther at its tip; threadlike.
FILIFORM (FIL-I-form) - Thread-like.
FILIFORMIS, -e (fil-i-FOR-mis) - Long, slender and flexible.
FIMBRIATE (FIM-bri-ate) - Fringed.
FIMBRIATUS, -a, -um (fim-bree-AY-tus) - Fringed; fimbriate.
FIMBRILLATE (FIM-bril-layt) - Minutely fringed; fimbrillose.
FIR BARK - A potting medium consisting of chopped or ground bark of White, Red or Douglas fir.
FISSILE (fiss-eye-l) - Splitting.
FISTULARIS, -e (fist-yew-LAIR-is) - Cylindrical and hollow; fistulous.
FLABBELLATE (fla-BEL-ate) - Fan-shaped.
FLABELLATUS, -a, -um (fla-bel-LAY-tus) - Fan-shaped; flabellate; flabelliform.
FLABELLIFORM (fla-BEL-li-form) - Fan-shaped.
FLACCID (FLAK-sid or FLA-sid) - Soft, not rigid, weak.
FLACCIDUS, -a, -um (FLAS-si-dus) - Weak, drooping, usually applied to flower stems; soft, lax, not rigid.
FLAGELLIFORMIS, -e (fla-jell-i-FOR-mis) - Whip-form; long and slender like a lash; flagelliform.
FLASK - (1) Any clear container used in the germination of orchid seed and other forms of micropropagation; (2) To sow orchid seed or to transplant seedlings into such a container.
FLASKING - The process of sowing orchid seed or transplanting seedlings or other tissue into a flask.
FLAT - Shallow tray or box, usually of plastic, in which small seedlings are grown in quantity.
FLAVESCENS (fla-VEH-senz) - Yellowish; turning yellow; flavescent.
FLAVIDUS, -a, -um (FLAY-vi-dus) - Yellow; flavid.
FLAVUS, -a, -um (FLAY-vus) - Yellow; flavid.
FLEXUOSUS, -a, -um (flek-shoo-OH-sus) - Bending alternately in opposite directions.
FLEXUOUS (FLEK-shu-us) - Bending alternately in opposite directions.
FLOCCOSE (FLO-cos) or (FLOK-ohs) - Wooly or fuzzy. Having tufts of wooly hair
FLORA - The plant composition of a given region; also a book describing this composition.
FLORALIS, -e (floor-RAY-liss) - Of or pertaining to the flower; floral.
FLORICULTURE - The art and science of growing flowers.
FLORIDUS, -a, -um (FLOOR-i-dus) - Literally flowering and thence flourishing; bright, florid.
FLORIFEROUS (flo-RIF-er-us) or (FLOOR-if-er-us) - Flower bearing; blooming freely.
FLORIGEN (FLO-rij-en) - A flowering hormone related to photo periodism.
FLORULA (floor-UHL-ah) - Literally a small flora, referring to a flora of a relatively small area such as a nature preserve.
FOETID (FEE-tid) - With a disagreeable odor; fetid.
FOLIACEOUS (FO-li-AY-shus) - Resembling a leaf in form and texture.
FOLIACEOUS BRACT (foh-lee-AYE-shuss brackt) - A bract that is broad, green and leaf-like, the leaf-like structure subtending the pseudobulb in genera such as Brassia and Miltonia.
FOLIACEUS, -a, -um (foh-lee-AY-see-us) - Resembling a leaf in texture and appearance; bearing leaves; foliaceous.
FOLIAGE (FOH-li-aje) - Leaves. Collective term for leafy units (leaves, leaf-buds, and their associate structures).
FOLIAR SPRAY (fo-LI-ar spray)- Many minor nutrients and trace elements beneficial to growth are best absorbed through the stomata of an orchids leaves when mixed with water and sprayed on the plant.
-FOLIATE (foll-ee-ayt) - In combinations, -leaved; having leaves; as trifoliate, "three-leaved."
-FOLIOLATE (FOH-lee-o-layt) - Having leaflets; as trifoliolate; "of three leaflets."
FOLIOSUS, -a, -um (foh-lee-OH-sus) - Leafy; foliose.
FOOT (of column) - An extension of the base of the column beyond its point of attachment to the pedicel, or flower stem.
FOOT-CANDLE - A unit of light (illumination) equivalent to that produced by a standard candle at a distance of one foot. Term used to indicate light intensity.
FORAMEN (foh-RAY-men) - An aperture or opening.
FORCING - To hasten flower production by artificial means.
FORKED - Branching or divided into nearly equal parts or members.
FORM - A taxonomic designation referring to randomly occurring infrequent variants such as albinos.
FORMOSANUS, -a, -um (for-mo-SAY-nus) - From the island of Formosa.
FORMOSUS (for-MOE-sus) - Beautiful in shape; strinkingly ornamental.
FORMULA - In regards to hybrids, the parents' name forming the hybrid. The names are connected by the multiplication sign X (by) ; the seed parent listed first, then the pollen donor.
FORNICATUS, -a, -um (for-ni-KAY-tus) - Arched; fornicate.
FRACTIFLEX (FRACK-ti-flex) - Zig-zag.
FRAGRANS (FRAY-granz) - Sweet-scented.
FREE - Not joined to other organs; as petals free from the stamens, calyx or themselves.
FRENUM (free-NUM) - a fold of membrane that checks or restrains the motion of a part,
FRINGED - Furnished with hair-like appendages on the margins.
FROND (FRAHND) - Leaf of fern; sometimes used in the sense of foliage.
FRUCTIFICATION (fruk-ti-fi-KAY-shun) - The act or process of fruiting; also the fruiting organ or organs.
FRUIT - The seed-bearing organ of a plant.
FRUTICOSUS, -a, -um (froo-ti-KOH-sus) - Shrubby or shrub-like in the sense of being woody; fruiticose.
FUGACIOUS (fu-GAY-shus) - Falling away or withering away almost immediately after development; transitory..
FULVUS, -a, -um (FULL-vus) - Tawny; fulvous.
FUNGICIDE - The class of chemicals that are used to destroy fungi.
FUNICLE (FEW-ni-kl) - Basal stalk of an ovule or seed.
FURCATE (FUR-kate) - Forked or two horned.
FURCATUS, -a, -um (fer-KAY-tus) - Forked or two-horned; furcate.
FURFURACEUS (FUR-few-RAY-shus) or (fer-fer-AY-see-us) - Scurfy; scaly, furfuraceous.
FURROWED (fur-ROW-d) - With longitudinal channels or grooves.
FUSCATUS, -a, -um (fus-KAY-tus) - Brownish; dark; dusky; fuscous.
FUSED (fewz'd) - United.
FUSIFORM (FEW-zi-form) - Spindle-shaped; circular in cross section, broadest at center and tapering evenly to ends, i.e. narrower at both ends than at the center.
FUSIFORMIS, -e (few-si-FOR-mis) - Spindle-shaped; narrowed both ways from a swollen middle; fusiform.
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